Currently, Tajikistan has just begun searching for improved mechanisms for an integrated approach to solving the problems of socio-economic development, taking into account the environmental issues.
The solution of environmental issues in the country is of growing importance. Currently, out of the nine ratified environmental conventions, five strategies and action plans to implement them, were developed and public expenditures to address environmental issues are increasing with greatly increased international donor assistance.
For upgrading technological processes, including those in lowering the levels of GHG emissions in a number of industrial enterprises in Tajikistan, a phased transition to more advanced manufacturing technology is carried out. In the country, large-scale efforts are being made to use energy-saving devices to reduce the electricity deficit.
In 2008, the Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan created the Centre for Research and Use of Renewable Energy. As part of its activities, studies of all types of renewable energy (energy of small rivers, sun, wind, biomass, etc.) have been conducted. This has allowed estimating the gross, technical and economic capacity of these renewable resources in the country.
Tajikistan has developed a system ECONET, which provides the prerequisites for the conservation of many species of flora and fauna, including rare and endangered species by establishing a system to identify biotopes/habitats with their highest concentrations.
Available qualitative and quantitative information on biodiversity indicators shows a lack of adjusted monitoring system in this sector and hence accessibility of accurate and objective information on biodiversity dynamics, quantity and habitat changes.
Data on the current forest inventories indicate that the declining productivity of forests from 6 million m3 in 1990 to 5 million m3 is caused primarily by a deficit of forest land for production of business timber. In recent years, interventions for forest protection and development of new plantations have stabilized the situation somewhat with a greatly expanded network of forest nurseries for producing sapling materials.
Arable lands are degraded within an area of 720,000 ha. Land degradation is mainly caused by water, wind and irrigation erosion. The area of land affected by desertification in the past decade is more than 4 million ha, a third more than in 1990. The target indicator of “5% reduction in the area of degraded land and pastures” is difficult to define and unlikely achievable.
Only 60% of Tajikistan’s population uses tap water and 40% consumes water directly from rivers, canals, small-scale irrigation networks and other sources are disadvantaged from a sanitation point of view. Moreover, 463 (64%) of water pipelines do not meet sanitary requirements, because of a lack of sanitary protection zones, water purification facilities and decontamination (chlorination) facilities.
Authorized agencies and organizations, coordinating the activities on the complex of issues of maintenance of water pipes and sewers, are not able to maintain facilities, primarily due to the decentralized management system of the country’s utilities, the uncoordinated reforms in this sector of the economy, instable supply of electricity (especially in rural areas), underfunding and an ineffective tariff system.